Netherlands is one of the countries that is known for producing many musicians since the past. Many old Netherlands musicians during 1930’s and 1940’s suffered and lost due to the persecution of Nazi. In this article, we will look briefly into different musicians of the Netherlands music legacy.
An excellent pianist by birth, Mischa Hillesum suffered due to various psychotic conditions. He was a Jew, and as a result, he was banned from performing in public. However, he was allowed to give performance privately for certain section of the audiences. Through William Andriessen and Wilhelm Mengelberg, he obtained permission to be in detention in a luxurious centre. This was done to keep him active for local music activities. In the year 1953, he joined Westerbork camp, where he was provided special status. He was sent to forced labour after his parents were deported to Auschwitz. His parents were murdered in Auschwitz while Mischa Hillesum was unable to survive in the forced labour.
A non-practicing Jewish, Nico Richter was from Amsterdam. He was trained in violin initially. However, he learned medicine due to the pressure from his parents. He married a non-Jew, but he was not subjected to persecution initially. However, was arrested in the year 1942 and survived by working a doctor in the camps. He even managed to survive Auschwitz liberation. But the experiences he underwent throughout made him weak so he died soon afterwards.
A Jew from Portuguese descendant, Leo Smit’s music sounded more like French. He studied music with a composer Sem Dresden, who went hiding in the year 1941. Smit was murdered in the persecution in the age of 43. By looking into his compositions and works, it has been found that Leo Smit was at his peak of creativity during the time of his death. He was young when he made most of the brilliant works.
Born in 1893, Daniël Belinfante is a great composer, whose most of his work got vanished and many of the got lost. He was married to Martha Dekker, a composer, and both of them taught at the Watergraafsmeer School. He went hiding during the war and was captured and deported to Westerbork and then to Auschwitz. Then he was deported to Fürstengrube, where died soon in the year of 1945.
An excellent pianist, Henriëtte Bosmans started performing with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra right from the young age of 17. Her compositions were banned, and she was banned in public performance except in a musical concert that was only meant for Jewish audiences.
Lex van Delden
Lex van Delden was born as Alexander Zwaap in the year 1919. He changed his name after his parents were murdered in Sobibor and went hiding. He was fighting for Resistance, and he lost his one eye during that stint. He died in the year 1988, and all his works before 1944 was lost in the Nijmegen bombing.
A victim of Nazi persecution, Rosy Wertheim was born in a wealthy family in the year 1888. She studied with Karl Weigl and Audbert in Vienna and Paris respectively. She lived hiding during the war, and most of her family members were dead. She died in 1949.